Faculty

Jed Rose

Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addiction
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine
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2424 Erwin Road, Suite 201, Durham, NC 27705

Box 2701 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710

(919) 668-5055 rose0003@mc.duke.edu

We are pursuing three main lines of research:

1) Brain imaging of the effects of nicotine and cigarette smoking: We have used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) methods to analyze regional cerebral blood flow responses to nicotine, administered either intravenously or inhaled in cigarettes. Our aim is to identify brain substrates mediating the addictive properties of nicotine. Preliminary results have shown alterations in the pattern of regional cerebral blood flow, involving frontal cortex, amygdala and other brain regions. We will continue to delineate the similarities and differences between the effects of nicotine and other drugs on regional brain activity, and plan to monitor the changes in response to nicotine after smoking cessation with nicotine antagonist treatment.

2) Analysis of airway sensory components of smoking reinforcement: We have continued the study the role of sensorimotor aspects of cigarette smoking in relieving craving for cigarettes and regulating smoke intake. We completed a study of the effects of intravenous nicotine presented alone or in combination with the sensorimotor aspects of smoking using de-nicotinized cigarette smoke. Craving for cigarettes was relieved more effectively by the de-nicotinized smoke than by the intravenous nicotine. Current studies underway at the Clinical Research Unit will further investigate the subjective effects of i.v. nicotine and de-nicotinized cigarette smoke, using a wider range of nicotine doses. Possible predictors of clinical outcome following nicotine skin patch treatment will be identified based on acute responses to the pharmacologic effects of nicotine in the laboratory.

We are also continuing to further the clinical application of these findings by developing substitutes that provide the airways sensory effects of smoking (e.g. citric acid aerosol).


3) Agonist/antagonist combination treatment for drug dependence: In a double blind smoking cessation trial using mecamylamine, a nicotinic antagonist, in combination with nicotine skin patches, we found that addition of the antagonist substantially increases smoking abstinence throughout the 1 year follow-up. Two additional studies that we conducted support the view that pre-treatment with mecamylamine prior to smoking cessation may be a critical factor in achieving high success rates. By blocking reinforcing effects of nicotine, smoking behavior may be partially extinguished, thereby facilitating subsequent smoking cessation. We recently completed a Phase II FDA trial evaluating a transdermal patch delivering nicotine and mecamylamine, which replicated our previous results. It is anticipated that an NDA pertaining to the new skin patch will be submitted in 1997. Continuing studies in our program will determine the optimal dose and duration of treatment. We also have initiated studies to extend this approach to the treatment of other drug dependencies, including cocaine.


Education & Training

Ph.D. 1978

University of California at San Diego

Grants

E-cigarettes: deposition, absorption and brain accumulation of nicotine

National Institutes of Health

E-cigarettes: deposition, absorption and brain accumulation of nicotine

National Institutes of Health

Neural Circuitry Involved in Pulmonary Nicotine Sensation during Smoking

The Role of Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Alkaloids in E-Cigarette Use and Dependence

National Institutes of Health

Center for Adaptive Treatment of Cigarette Addiction

National Institutes of Health

Alpha 5 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Gene Polymorphisms and Smoking Addiction

National Institutes of Health

Novel Approach to Quantify Nicotinic Receptor Upregulation in Smokers

National Institutes of Health

P50 Supplement

National Institutes of Health

Brain Substrates of Extinction-Based Treatment for Nicotine Dependence

National Institutes of Health

Optimal Smoking Cessation Treatment in PTSD

National Institutes of Health

Effects of Cigarette Mentholation on Brain Nicotine Accumulation During Smoking

National Institutes of Health

Neurobiology of Nicotine and Non-nicotine Components of Tobacco Addiction

National Institutes of Health

Improving the efficacy of anti-nicotine immunotherapy

National Institutes of Health

Smoking & Anxiety In Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

National Institutes of Health

Stress and Behavior in Health and Disease

National Institutes of Health

Neuroimaging Attentional Impairment During Abstinence

National Institutes of Health

The Effect of Smoking on Startle & PPI in PTSD

National Institutes of Health

Oral nicotine replacement for Smoking Cessation

National Institutes of Health

Drug Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An fMRI Investigation

National Institutes of Health

Scaling The Reinforcing Value Of Cigarette Smoke

National Institutes of Health

Nicotinic Influences on Alcohol Use and Dependence

National Institutes of Health

Dopaminergic Mechanisms Of Nicotine Addiction

National Institutes of Health

Nicotine Tolerance and Blockade in Cigarette Smokers

National Institutes of Health

Nicotinic Influences On Alcohol Use And Dependence

National Institutes of Health

Nicotine Tolerance And Blockade In Cigarette Smokers

National Institutes of Health

Scaling The Reinforcing Value Of Cigarette Smoke

National Institutes of Health

Dopaminergic Mechanisms In Nicotine Addiction

National Institutes of Health

Phentermine And Fenfluramine For Smoking Cestation

National Institutes of Health

Neuroanatomical Substrates Of Nicotine Addiction

National Institutes of Health

Caffine Effects On Stress Reactivy

National Institutes of Health

Drive To Smoke And Dopamine Blockade

National Institutes of Health

Neuroanatomiacal Substrates Of Nicotine Addiction

National Institutes of Health

Biobehavioral Factors In Coronary Heart Disease

National Institutes of Health

Biobehaviorial Factors In Coronary Heart Disease

National Institutes of Health

Caffine'S Effects On Smoking And Nicotine Withdrawal

National Institutes of Health

Scaling The Reinforcing Value Of Cigarette Smoke

National Institutes of Health
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Publications

Chronic memantine decreases nicotine self-administration in rats.

PMID 31421087
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Evaluation of a Botanical Extract that Mimics the Respiratory Cues of Cigarette Smoke

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Why we work with the tobacco industry.

PMID 30324665
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Developing fit-for-purpose self-report instruments for assessing consumer responses to tobacco and nicotine products: the ABOUT™ Toolbox initiative.

PMID 30906527
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Lorcaserin for Smoking Cessation and Associated Weight Gain: A Randomized 12-Week Clinical Trial.

PMID 27815511
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Combination Varenicline/Bupropion Treatment Benefits Highly Dependent Smokers in an Adaptive Smoking Cessation Paradigm.

PMID 29054128
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A programmable smoke delivery device for PET imaging with cigarettes containing 11C-nicotine.

PMID 28347784
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Acute oral 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) decreases both alcohol intake and IV nicotine self-administration in rats.

PMID 27984095
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Reduction of nicotine self-administration by chronic nicotine infusion with H1 histamine blockade in female rats.

PMID 27318988
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The effects of nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors on working memory and associated brain function.

PMID 25904425
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Dextromethorphan interactions with histaminergic and serotonergic treatments to reduce nicotine self-administration in rats.

PMID 26704812
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Amitifadine, a triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitor, reduces nicotine self-administration in female rats.

PMID 26101069
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Increased Functional Connectivity in an Insula-Based Network is Associated with Improved Smoking Cessation Outcomes.

PMID 25895453
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Response to Gorelick.

PMID 25827038
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Sex-specific effects of cigarette mentholation on brain nicotine accumulation and smoking behavior.

PMID 25267342
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Bupropion-varenicline interactions and nicotine self-administration behavior in rats.

PMID 25616031
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NIH electronic cigarette workshop: developing a research agenda.

PMID 25335949
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Neuroanatomical circuitry mediating the sensory impact of nicotine in the central nervous system.

PMID 25223294
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Combination treatment with varenicline and bupropion in an adaptive smoking cessation paradigm.

PMID 24934962
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Nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors differentially modulate craving, withdrawal and cerebral blood flow as measured with arterial spin labeling.

PMID 24820539
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IV nicotine self-administration in rats using a consummatory operant licking response: sensitivity to serotonergic, glutaminergic and histaminergic drugs.

PMID 24953434
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Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability and response to smoking cessation treatment: a randomized trial.

PMID 24850280
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Combination Treatment With Varenicline and Bupropion in an Adaptive Smoking Cessation Paradigm

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Differential effects of non-nicotine tobacco constituent compounds on nicotine self-administration in rats.

PMID 24560911
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Smoking quit success genotype score predicts quit success and distinct patterns of developmental involvement with common addictive substances

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Smoking quit success genotype score predicts quit success and distinct patterns of developmental involvement with common addictive substances.

PMID 23128154
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Role of insular cortex D₁ and D₂ dopamine receptors in nicotine self-administration in rats.

PMID 23948214
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A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction.

PMID 24084939
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Adapting smoking cessation treatment according to initial response to precessation nicotine patch.

PMID 23640009
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Biomarkers for smoking cessation.

PMID 23588313
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Neuronal expression of bitter taste receptors and downstream signaling molecules in the rat brainstem.

PMID 22836012
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Neuroanatomical evidence for a putative autocrine/paracrine signaling system involving nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, purinergic receptors, and nitric oxide synthase in the airways.

PMID 22420037
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Menthol preference among smokers: association with TRPA1 variants.

PMID 21719896
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Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus modulates craving for cigarettes.

PMID 21762878
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Nicotine preloading: the importance of a pre-cessation reduction in smoking behavior.

PMID 21643677
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Lorcaserin, a 5-HT2C agonist, decreases nicotine self-administration in female rats.

PMID 21636655
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Response: a quest and a wager.

PMID 22003418
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D-cycloserine selectively decreases nicotine self-administration in rats with low baseline levels of response.

PMID 21192967
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Individualized smoking cessation treatment: roles for sets of genomic markers.

PMID 29783404
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Histamine H(1) antagonist treatment with pyrilamine reduces nicotine self-administration in rats.

PMID 20951696
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IV nicotine self-administration in rats using the consummatory operant licking response.

PMID 20804779
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Silver acetate interactions with nicotine and non-nicotine smoke components.

PMID 21186921
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Genome-wide association for smoking cessation success in a trial of precessation nicotine replacement.

PMID 20811658
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Stress alleviation and reward enhancement: two promising targets for relapse prevention.

PMID 20888456
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Smoking withdrawal shifts the spatiotemporal dynamics of neurocognition.

PMID 21040240
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Pulmonary delivery of nicotine pyruvate: sensory and pharmacokinetic characteristics.

PMID 20939642
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Effects of sazetidine-A, a selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitizing agent on alcohol and nicotine self-administration in selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

PMID 20535453
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Hippocampal and striatal gray matter volume are associated with a smoking cessation treatment outcome: results of an exploratory voxel-based morphometric analysis.

PMID 20424827
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Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.

PMID 20379614
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Reinforcing effects of nicotine and non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke.

PMID 20358364
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Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior.

PMID 20418890
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Nicotinic receptors in the habenula: importance for memory.

PMID 20034548
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Kinetics of brain nicotine accumulation in dependent and nondependent smokers assessed with PET and cigarettes containing 11C-nicotine.

PMID 20212132
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Sazetidine-A, a selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent and partial agonist, reduces nicotine self-administration in rats.

PMID 20007754
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Co-expression of nAChRs and molecules of the bitter taste transduction pathway by epithelial cells of intrapulmonary airways.

PMID 20060845
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Precessation treatment with nicotine patch significantly increases abstinence rates relative to conventional treatment.

PMID 19567826
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Genome-wide association for smoking cessation success: participants in a trial with adjunctive denicotinized cigarettes.

PMID 19593411
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Neuroanatomical relationships of substance P-immunoreactive intrapulmonary C-fibers and nicotinic cholinergic receptors.

PMID 19115400
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24-h smoking abstinence potentiates fMRI-BOLD activation to smoking cues in cerebral cortex and dorsal striatum.

PMID 19107465
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Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor occupancy: effect of smoking a denicotinized cigarette.

PMID 18706128
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Nicotine abstinence genotyping: assessing the impact on smoking cessation clinical trials.

PMID 18781146
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Nicotinic alpha7- or beta2-containing receptor knockout: effects on radial-arm maze learning and long-term nicotine consumption in mice.

PMID 18831991
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New findings on nicotine addiction and treatment.

PMID 19013942
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Ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, decreases nicotine self-administration in rats.

PMID 18950618
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Disrupting nicotine reinforcement: from cigarette to brain.

PMID 18991961
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Individual differences in nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and sex predict transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues.

PMID 17987060
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Pre-cessation varenicline treatment vs post-cessation NRT: an uneven playing field.

PMID 18663077
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A randomized trial of nicotine replacement therapy in combination with reduced-nicotine cigarettes for smoking cessation.

PMID 18629723
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Molecular genetics of successful smoking cessation: convergent genome-wide association study results.

PMID 18519826
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Effects of smoking abstinence on adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of a preliminary study.

PMID 18038223
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Regional brain activity correlates of nicotine dependence.

PMID 17356570
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DRD4 VNTR polymorphism is associated with transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues.

PMID 17611740
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Multiple brain pathways and receptors underlying tobacco addiction.

PMID 17826746
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Increases in impulsivity following smoking abstinence are related to baseline nicotine intake and boredom susceptibility.

PMID 17399907
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Selectively reduced responses to smoking cues in amygdala following extinction-based smoking cessation: results of a preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

PMID 17573781
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Molecular genetics of nicotine dependence and abstinence: whole genome association using 520,000 SNPs.

PMID 17407593
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The effects of foods, beverages, and other factors on cigarette palatability.

PMID 17454706
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Guidelines on nicotine dose selection for in vivo research.

PMID 16896961
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Denicotinized cigarettes: a new tool to combat cigarette addiction?

PMID 17222266
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Transdermal nicotine attenuates depression symptoms in nonsmokers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

PMID 16977477
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Neuroactive steroids, negative affect, and nicotine dependence severity in male smokers.

PMID 16402195
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Nicotine and nonnicotine factors in cigarette addiction.

PMID 16362402
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Precessation treatment with nicotine skin patch facilitates smoking cessation.

PMID 16497603
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Nicotine replacement therapies and other nicotinic strategies

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Development of a system for the non-invasive measurement of the time course of [C-11] nicotine

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Abstinence-induced changes in self-report craving correlate with event-related FMRI responses to smoking cues.

PMID 15920499
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Immediate antecedents of cigarette smoking in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.

PMID 16173885
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Mecamylamine moderates cue-induced emotional responses in smokers.

PMID 15833578
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Ethics of tobacco company funding.

PMID 15860608
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The effects of trauma recall on smoking topography in posttraumatic stress disorder and non-posttraumatic stress disorder trauma survivors.

PMID 15621396
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Erratum: "Effects of low nicotine content cigarettes on smoke intake" (Nicotine & Tobacco Research (2004) vol. 6 (2) (309-319))

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The effects of controlled deep breathing on smoking withdrawal symptoms in dependent smokers.

PMID 15135559
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Extinguishing the rewarding value of smoke cues: pharmacological and behavioral treatments.

PMID 15203786
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Effects of low nicotine content cigarettes on smoke intake.

PMID 15203805
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Psychopharmacological interactions between nicotine and ethanol.

PMID 14982697
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Adolescent-onset nicotine self-administration modeled in female rats.

PMID 12764575
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Pharmacologic and sensorimotor components of satiation in cigarette smoking.

PMID 14592675
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Mecamylamine acutely increases human intravenous nicotine self-administration.

PMID 14592683
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Reliabilities and intercorrelations of reported and objective measures of smoking in patients with schizophrenia.

PMID 12505133
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PET studies of the influences of nicotine on neural systems in cigarette smokers.

PMID 12562580
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Potentiation of nicotine reward by alcohol.

PMID 12500124
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Mecamylamine modifies the pharmacokinetics and reinforcing effects of alcohol.

PMID 11923584
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Haloperidol reduces smoking of both nicotine-containing and denicotinized cigarettes.

PMID 11797066
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Oral nicotine solution for smoking cessation: a pilot tolerability study.

PMID 11694207
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Platelet monoamine oxidase, smoking cessation, and tobacco withdrawal symptoms.

PMID 11694206
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Individual differences in smoking reward from de-nicotinized cigarettes.

PMID 11403723
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Acute effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on tobacco withdrawal symptoms, cigarette reward and ad lib smoking.

PMID 11267622
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Evaluation of pharmacologic treatments for smoking cessation

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The nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine preferentially inhibits cocaine vs. food self-administration in rats.

PMID 11239676
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Dissociating nicotine and nonnicotine components of cigarette smoking.

PMID 11113486
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Combining the nicotine inhaler and nicotine patch for smoking cessation

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Arterial nicotine kinetics during cigarette smoking and intravenous nicotine administration: implications for addiction.

PMID 10482401
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Naltrexone blockade of nicotine effects in cigarette smokers.

PMID 10367550
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Blockade of smoking satisfaction using the peripheral nicotinic antagonist trimethaphan.

PMID 9972860
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Transdermal nicotine effects on attention.

PMID 9860103
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Nicotine-mecamylamine treatment for smoking cessation: the role of pre-cessation therapy.

PMID 9725117
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Conference on tobacco dependence: Innovative regulatory approaches to reduce death and disease: Selected excerpts from conference proceedings

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Membership of tobacco industry scientists in scientific societies.

PMID 9219375
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Nicotine self-administration in animals and humans: similarities and differences.

PMID 9089846
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Smoking behavior on the first day of a quit attempt predicts long-term abstinence.

PMID 9040302
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Nicotine and neurobehavioral function

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Airway sensory replacement as a treatment for smoking cessation

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Nicotine/mecamylamine combination treatment for smoking cessation

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Nicotine-haloperidol interactions and cognitive performance in schizophrenics.

PMID 8914115
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Quitting smoking raises whole blood glutathione.

PMID 8916198
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Do heavy smokers need a higher replacement dose of nicotine to quit?

PMID 8648863
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Dissociating the nicotine and airway sensory effects of smoking.

PMID 8808137
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Nicotine effects on adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

PMID 8741955
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Nicotine and attention in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

PMID 8927677
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Nicotine addiction and treatment.

PMID 8712799
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Smoking in Vietnam combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.

PMID 7582610
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Effects of nicotinic dimethylaminoethyl esters on working memory performance of rats in the radial-arm maze.

PMID 7667355
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Acute and chronic nicotinic interactions with dopamine systems and working memory performance.

PMID 7611680
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Combined administration of agonist-antagonist as a method of regulating receptor activation.

PMID 7611676
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Haloperidol increases smoking in patients with schizophrenia.

PMID 7675943
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Airway sensory replacement combined with nicotine replacement for smoking cessation. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial using a citric acid inhaler.

PMID 7750331
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Clozapine decreases smoking in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

PMID 7619979
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Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Perception of Thermal Pain

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Effects of Daily Caffeine Intake on Smoking Behavior in the Natural Environment

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Nicotine as a therapeutic drug.

PMID 7862206
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Mecamylamine combined with nicotine skin patch facilitates smoking cessation beyond nicotine patch treatment alone.

PMID 8033499
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Nicotine skin patch treatment increases abstinence, decreases withdrawal symptoms, and attenuates rewarding effects of smoking.

PMID 8151002
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Inhalation of vapor from black pepper extract reduces smoking withdrawal symptoms.

PMID 8033760
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Reducing Craving for Cigarettes While Decreasing Smoke Intake Using Capsaicin-Enhanced Low Tar Cigarettes

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Combined Effects of Nicotine and Mecamylamine in Attenuating Smoking Satisfaction

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Intracerebroventricular nicotine and mecamylamine alter radial‐arm maze performance in rats

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Saliva nicotine as an index of plasma levels in nicotine skin patch users.

PMID 8249050
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Clinical trials using ascorbic acid aerosol to aid smoking cessation.

PMID 8261886
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Chronic nicotine reverses working memory deficits caused by lesions of the fimbria or medial basalocortical projection.

PMID 8257869
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The nicotine patch in smoking cessation. A randomized trial with telephone counseling.

PMID 8250653
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Prenatal nicotine exposure and cognitive performance in rats.

PMID 8413079
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Chronic nicotinic stimulation and blockade effects on working memory.

PMID 11224184
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Role of nicotine dose and sensory cues in the regulation of smoke intake.

PMID 8469698
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Pharmacokinetics of a transdermal nicotine patch compared to nicotine gum

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Clinical evaluation of a citric acid inhaler for smoking cessation.

PMID 8436059
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Sertraline attenuates hyperphagia in rats following nicotine withdrawal.

PMID 8430129
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Persistence of chronic nicotine-induced cognitive facilitation.

PMID 1456935
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Nicotine psychopharmacology

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Concurrent agonist-antagonist administration for the analysis and treatment of drug dependence.

PMID 1539072
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Tar, CO and delta 9THC delivery from the 1st and 2nd halves of a marijuana cigarette.

PMID 1666924
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Effects of varying marijuana smoking profile on deposition of tar and absorption of CO and delta-9-THC.

PMID 1666923
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Nicotinic and muscarinic interactions and choice accuracy in the radial-arm maze.

PMID 1933424
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The effects of smoking-related sensory cues on psychological stress.

PMID 1946567
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Inter-relationships between conditioned and primary reinforcement in the maintenance of cigarette smoking.

PMID 1859927
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Interactive effects of D1 and D2 agonists with scopolamine on radial-arm maze performance.

PMID 1676165
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Psychophysiological interactions between caffeine and nicotine.

PMID 2057503
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Cholinergic-dopaminergic interactions in cognitive performance.

PMID 2078161
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The use of flavor in cigarette substitutes.

PMID 2242716
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Development of a citric acid aerosol as a smoking cessation aid.

PMID 2189719
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Transdermal nicotine facilitates smoking cessation.

PMID 2178852
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Chronic nicotine and withdrawal effects on radial-arm maze performance in rats.

PMID 2331235
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Characterization of the cognitive effects of combined muscarinic and nicotinic blockade.

PMID 1967931
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Low-nicotine regenerated smoke aerosol reduces desire for cigarettes.

PMID 2136112
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Methodological review. Controlled dosing of nicotine: A review of problems and progress

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A noninvasive method for delivering controlled doses of nicotine via cigarette smoke

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Reversal of a mecamylamine-induced cognitive deficit with the D2 agonist, LY 171555.

PMID 2575760
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Controlling puff volume without disrupting smoking topography

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Mecamylamine increases nicotine preference and attenuates nicotine discrimination.

PMID 2798542
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Anxiolytic effects of smoking associated with four stressors.

PMID 2782121
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Effects of controlled nicotine doses upon punished and non-punished responding in humans.

PMID 2641021
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The effect of nicotine on the delay of gastric emptying.

PMID 2979243
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Pulmonary hazards of smoking marijuana as compared with tobacco.

PMID 3340105
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Influence of marijuana potency and amount of cigarette consumed on marijuana smoking pattern.

PMID 2839655
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The role of upper airway stimulation in smoking.

PMID 3380825
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Effect of naloxone on cigarette smoking.

PMID 2980866
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Citric acid aerosol as a potential smoking cessation aid.

PMID 3677804
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Refined cigarette smoke as a method for reducing nicotine intake.

PMID 3685063
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Noninvasive measurement of smokers' tar and nicotine intake

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Cigarette smoking blocks caffeine-induced arousal.

PMID 3790213
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Cigarette desirability and nicotine preference in smokers.

PMID 3952107
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Transdermal nicotine reduces cigarette craving and nicotine preference.

PMID 4042528
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Sensory blockade of smoking satisfaction.

PMID 4059314
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Alcohol increases cigarette smoking: a laboratory demonstration.

PMID 4083099
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Transdermal administration of nicotine.

PMID 6734425
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Nicotine preference increases after cigarette deprivation.

PMID 6695000
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Subjective response to cigarette smoking following airway anesthetization.

PMID 6741683
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Discriminability of nicotine in tobacco smoke: implications for titration.

PMID 6741679
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Regulation of tobacco smoke intake with paced cigarette presentation.

PMID 6836000
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Cigarette smoking during anxiety-provoking and monotonous tasks.

PMID 6677075
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Cigarette smoking behavior in conjoined twins.

PMID 6673459
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Analysis of reinforcement by varying smoke component concentrations.

PMID 6443143
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A smoke-mixing device for measuring nicotine preference

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Self-punitive behavior in humans: Effects of a self-fulfilling prophecy

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