Faculty

Jeffrey Swanson

Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Social and Community Psychiatry
School of Medicine

Affiliate of the Center for Child and Family Policy

Center for Child and Family Policy
Sanford School of Public Policy
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Box 3071 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710

Brightleaf Sq Ste 23A, 905 W Main St, Durham, NC 27701

(919) 682-4827 jeffrey.swanson@duke.edu

Jeffrey Swanson is Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Duke University School of Medicine. He earned a PhD in sociology from Yale University and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in mental health services research at Duke and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Swanson is the author or coauthor of over 200 publications focused on the epidemiology of violence and serious mental illnesses; effectiveness of community-based interventions and services for adults with schizophrenia and other serious psychiatric disorders; laws and policies to reduce firearms violence; involuntary outpatient commitment; and psychiatric advance directives. He received the 2011 Carl Taube Award from the American Public Health Association and the 2010 Eugene C. Hargrove, MD Award from the North Carolina Psychiatric Foundation, both for outstanding career contributions to mental health research. He was awarded a NARSAD Distinguished Investigator Grant from the Brain and Behavior Foundation in 2013, and an Independent Research Scientist Career Award from the National Institute of Mental Health in 2004.  Dr. Swanson is currently Co-Director of the NIMH-funded UNC-Chapel Hill/Duke Postdoctoral Training Program in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services and Systems Research. He is principal investigator of a multi-state study on firearms laws, mental illness and prevention of violence, co-sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Program on Public Health Law Research (PHLR), and the Brain and Behavior Foundation. He is a key consultant and member of the PHLR program's Methods Core. He was a member of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Mandated Community Treatment. Dr. Swanson has served as a consultant to policymakers at the state and national levels, health care institutions, foundations, corporate research and legal firms.


Education & Training

M.A. 1980

Yale University

Ph.D. 1985

Yale University

Grants

Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Gun Sales: Comparative effectiveness of different minimum age standards for firearm purchase by adults with youthful crime records in North Carolina, Florida, and Virgin

Joyce Foundation

Evaluation of the Assisted Outpatient Treatment Grant Program for Individuals with Serious Mental Illness

Research Triangle Institute International

Implementation and Effectiveness of "Dangerous Persons" Gun-Seizure Laws

Elizabeth K Dollard Charitable Trust

Post-doctural Training Program in Mental Health Services Research

University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill

Implementation and Effectiveness of "Dangerous Persons" Gun-Seizure Laws in Connecticut and Indiana

New Venture Fund

Policy and interventions for adults with SMI and criminal justice involvement

National Institutes of Health

Gender differences in jail diversion for adults with co-occurring disorders

National Institutes of Health

Firearms Laws, Mental Disorder, and Violence

National Science Foundation

Implementing Psychiatric Advance Directives with Peer Specialist Facilitators

Department of Health and Human Services

Implementing Psychiatric Advance Directives with Peer Specialist Facilitators

Department of Education

National Program Methods Core

Temple University

IPA - Jeffrey Swanson

Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Post-doctoral Training Program in Mental Health Services Research

University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill

PREMIER Mental Health Interventions Training Program

National Institutes of Health

Psychiatric Treatment and Violence Risk Management

National Institutes of Health

Improving Representative Payeeship for People with Psychiatric Disabilities and their Families

National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research

Effectively Implementing Psychiatric Advance Directives

National Institutes of Health

The Effectiveness Of Involuntary Outpatient Commitment

National Institutes of Health

The Effectiveness Of Involuntary Outpatient Commitment

National Institutes of Health
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Publications

The Link Between Mental Illness and Being Subjected to Crime in Denmark vs the United States: How Much Do Poverty and the Safety Net Matter?

PMID 29799908
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Medication-Assisted Treatment for Alcohol-Dependent Adults With Serious Mental Illness and Criminal Justice Involvement: Effects on Treatment Utilization and Outcomes.

PMID 29961358
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Informing Federal Policy on Firearm Restrictions for Veterans with Fiduciaries: Risk Indicators in the Post-Deployment Mental Health Study.

PMID 29797151
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Associations between pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence and clinical and criminal justice outcomes among adults with co-occurring serious mental illness.

PMID 29415846
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Prohibition of persons with mental illness from gun ownership under tyler

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Randomised controlled trials and outpatient commitment.

PMID 29179941
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Alternative Perspectives on Police Encounters and Psychotic Experiences [Invited Commentary on DeVylder et al, "Psychotic Experiences in the Context of Police Victimization"].

PMID 28911052
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Facilitation of Psychiatric Advance Directives by Peers and Clinicians on Assertive Community Treatment Teams.

PMID 28366114
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Involuntary Outpatient Commitment and the Elusive Pursuit of Violence Prevention.

PMID 27777274
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Implementation and effectiveness of connecticut's risk-based gun removal law: Does it prevent suicides?

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Mental Illness, Release From Prison, and Social Context.

PMID 27802525
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A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Money Management Intervention for Veterans With Psychiatric Disabilities.

PMID 27181733
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On Thoughts, Threats, and Throwing the Spear.

PMID 27056718
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Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties.

PMID 27269024
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In reply

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State Laws on Emergency Holds for Mental Health Stabilization.

PMID 26927575
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Firearm Access and Risk of Suicide--Reply.

PMID 27187313
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Getting Serious About Reducing Suicide: More "How" and Less "Why".

PMID 26524461
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Consideration of all evidence about community treatment orders.

PMID 26362497
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Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

PMID 25975893
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Guns, Impulsive Angry Behavior, and Mental Disorders: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

PMID 25850688
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Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

PMID 25874748
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Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy.

PMID 24861430
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Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: Bringing epidemiologic research to policy

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Using research evidence to reframe the policy debate around mental illness and guns: process and recommendations.

PMID 25211757
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Treatment participation and medication adherence: effects on criminal justice costs of persons with mental illness.

PMID 25270494
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Patterns of justice involvement among adults with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: key risk factors.

PMID 24633645
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Why the evidence for outpatient commitment is good enough.

PMID 24881685
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Coercion and compulsion in mental healthcare-an international perspective.

PMID 24655618
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Response to Burns.

PMID 24500463
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Critical opportunities for public health law: a call for action.

PMID 24028265
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Adverse impact of coercive treatments on psychiatric inpatients' satisfaction with care.

PMID 23054144
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Costs of criminal justice involvement among persons with serious mental illness in connecticut.

PMID 23494058
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A survey of stakeholder knowledge, experience, and opinions of advance directives for mental health in Virginia.

PMID 22240937
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Preventing gun violence involving people with serious mental illness

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Economic grand rounds: Can states implement involuntary outpatient commitment within existing state budgets?

PMID 23280454
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Erratum: The Cost of Assisted Outpatient Treatment: Can It Save States Money? (American Journal of Psychiatry)

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Mental illness and new gun law reforms: The promise and peril of crisis-driven policy

PMID 23392291
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A survey of stakeholder knowledge, experience, and opinions of advance directives for mental health in Virginia

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Adverse impact of coercive treatments on psychiatric inpatients' satisfaction with care

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The cost of Assisted Outpatient Commitment: Can it save states money?

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Mental illness and gun control

PMID 23821099
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Explaining rare acts of violence: the limits of evidence from population research.

PMID 22211218
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Picturing Public Health Law Research: Using Causal Diagrams to Model and Test Theory

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Mental illness and firearm violence.

PMID 21900130
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Monograph: 'Police Interventions with Persons Affected by Mental Illnesses'

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Suicidality and acculturation in hispanic adolescents

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Legislating social policy: Mental illness, the community, and the law

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A Conceptually Based Scale to Measure Consumers’ Treatment Motivation

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Mental Illness, Law, and a Public Health Law Research Agenda

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Reductions in arrest under assisted outpatient treatment in New York.

PMID 20889637
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Assisted outpatient treatment in New York: regional differences in New York's assisted outpatient treatment program.

PMID 20889633
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Continuing medication and hospitalization outcomes after assisted outpatient treatment in New York.

PMID 20889635
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Robbing Peter to pay Paul: did New York State's outpatient commitment program crowd out voluntary service recipients?

PMID 20889636
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Changes in guideline-recommended medication possession after implementing Kendra's law in New York.

PMID 20889638
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Assessing outcomes for consumers in New York's assisted outpatient treatment program.

PMID 20889634
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Violent behavior in mental illness: the role of substance abuse.

PMID 20682936
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Law & psychiatry: Gun laws and mental illness: how sensible are the current restrictions?

PMID 20591996
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What would Mary Douglas do? A commentary on Kahan et al., "Cultural cognition and public policy: the case of outpatient commitment laws".

PMID 19462224
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Making the case for laws that improve health: a framework for public health law research.

PMID 20579282
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Medication preferences and adherence among individuals with severe mental illness and psychiatric advance directives.

PMID 20360277
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Psychiatric advance directives and social workers: an integrative review.

PMID 20408357
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Violence in schizophrenia: Prevalence, correlates, and treatment effectiveness

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Preferences for psychiatric advance directives among Latinos: views on advance care planning for mental health.

PMID 19797381
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Racial disparities in involuntary outpatient commitment: are they real?

PMID 19414892
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Autonomy and the use of directive intervention in the treatment of individuals with serious mental illnesses: A survey of social work practitioners

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Reducing barriers to completing psychiatric advance directives.

PMID 18633699
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Lawyers at Mid-Career: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study of Job and Life Satisfaction

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Comparison of antipsychotic medication effects on reducing violence in people with schizophrenia.

PMID 18700216
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A clinical trial comparing interviewer and computer-assisted assessment among clients with severe mental illness.

PMID 18586994
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Alternative pathways to violence in persons with schizophrenia: the role of childhood antisocial behavior problems.

PMID 17602288
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The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications in patients who use or avoid illicit substances: results from the CATIE study.

PMID 18191383
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Caregivers as money managers for adults with severe mental illness: how treatment providers can help.

PMID 18349329
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Preventing the unpredicted: managing violence risk in mental health care.

PMID 18245162
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Assessing risk of violent behavior among veterans with severe mental illness.

PMID 18302172
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Front line workers' attitudes towards psychiatric advance directives.

PMID 17721821
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A typology of advance statements in mental health care.

PMID 18182541
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Psychiatric advance directives and reduction of coercive crisis interventions.

PMID 20221301
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Social workers' familiarity with psychiatric advance directives: Implications for education, practice, and research

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Characteristics of representative payeeship involving families of beneficiaries with psychiatric disabilities.

PMID 17978253
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EFFECTIVELY IMPLEMENTING PSYCHIATRIC ADVANCE DIRECTIVES TO PROMOTE SELF-DETERMINATION OF TREATMENT AMONG PEOPLE WITH MENTAL ILLNESS.

PMID 24198456
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Previous Involuntary Commitment is Associated With Current Perceptions of Coercion in Voluntarily Hospitalized Patients

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Effect of patients' reasons for refusing treatment on implementing psychiatric advance directives.

PMID 17914014
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Commentary: psychiatric advance directives and recovery-oriented care.

PMID 17766560
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Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics for substance use in schizophrenia patients.

PMID 17587548
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Healthcare barriers among severely mentally ill homeless adults: evidence from the five-site health and risk study.

PMID 17294124
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Competence to complete psychiatric advance directives: effects of facilitated decision making.

PMID 17294136
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Re: Community treatment orders for psychiatric patients: the emperor with no clothes.

PMID 17500310
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Overriding psychiatric advance directives: factors associated with psychiatrists' decisions to preempt patients' advance refusal of hospitalization and medication.

PMID 16718578
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Authors' reply [4]

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Understanding the personal and clinical utility of psychiatric advance directives: a qualitative perspective.

PMID 17492909
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Psychiatric advance directives: a tool for consumer empowerment and recovery.

PMID 17694718
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Dr. Swanson and colleagues reply [4]

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The impact of perceived need for treatment on risk of arrest and violence among people with severe mental illness

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The relationship between mandated community treatment and perceived barriers to care in persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 17070907
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Facilitated psychiatric advance directives: a randomized trial of an intervention to foster advance treatment planning among persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 17074946
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Treatment engagement and violence risk in mental disorders.

PMID 17012659
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Violence and leveraged community treatment for persons with mental disorders.

PMID 16877654
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Substance use and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia among new enrollees in the NIMH CATIE study.

PMID 16870961
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Clinicians' attitudes regarding barriers to the implementation of psychiatric advance directives.

PMID 16237505
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A national study of violent behavior in persons with schizophrenia.

PMID 16651506
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Patient Preferences for Psychiatric Advance Directives

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Clinical decision making and views about psychiatric advance directives.

PMID 16524992
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Use of outpatient commitment or related civil court treatment orders in five U.S. communities.

PMID 16524991
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Medication adherence and long-term functional outcomes in the treatment of schizophrenia in usual care.

PMID 16649833
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Substance use in persons with schizophrenia: baseline prevalence and correlates from the NIMH CATIE study.

PMID 16534433
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Time to discontinuation of atypical versus typical antipsychotics in the naturalistic treatment of schizophrenia.

PMID 16504026
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Superseding psychiatric advance directives: ethical and legal considerations.

PMID 17032962
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Physicians' legal defensiveness in end-of-life treatment decisions: comparing attitudes and knowledge in states with different laws.

PMID 16689110
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Psychiatric advance directives among public mental health consumers in five U.S. cities: prevalence, demand, and correlates.

PMID 16585234
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Use of the criminal justice system to leverage mental health treatment: effects on treatment adherence and satisfaction.

PMID 17032951
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The effects of early sexual abuse on adult risky sexual behaviors among persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 16260038
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Perceived Fairness and Effectiveness of Leveraged Community Treatment Among Public Mental Health Consumers in Five U.S. Cities

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Psychiatrists' Views and Attitudes About Psychiatric Advance Directives

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Medication nonadherence and substance abuse in psychotic disorders: impact of depressive symptoms and social stability.

PMID 16208163
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Family representative payeeship and violence risk in severe mental illness.

PMID 16254743
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Cost-sharing requirements and access to mental health care among medicare enrollees with schizophrenia.

PMID 16088013
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The effects of race and criminal justice involvement on access to atypical antipsychotic medications among persons with schizophrenia.

PMID 15974158
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Prevalence and outcomes of ADA employment discrimination claims in the federal courts.

PMID 16201133
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Use of leverage to improve adherence to psychiatric treatment in the community.

PMID 15637190
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Consumer views of representative payee use of disability funds to leverage treatment adherence.

PMID 15637191
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A comparison of stigmatizing attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia in four stakeholder groups: perceived likelihood of violence and desire for social distance.

PMID 16247858
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Reducing violence risk in persons with schizophrenia: olanzapine versus risperidone.

PMID 15641872
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Involuntary outpatient commitment, community treatment orders, and assisted outpatient treatment: what's in the data?

PMID 15503729
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Caregiving for persons with mental illness: the impact of outpatient commitment on caregiving strain.

PMID 15387158
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Consumers' perceptions of the fairness and effectiveness of mandated community treatment and related pressures.

PMID 15232017
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Treating chronic and severe mental disorders - A handbook of empirically supported interventions

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Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic medications in reducing violent behavior among persons with schizophrenia in community-based treatment.

PMID 15176758
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Psychiatric advance directives: Practical, legal, and ethical issues

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Psychiatric Disability, the Use of Financial Leverage, and Perceived Coercion in Mental Health Services

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Effects of legal mechanisms on perceived coercion and treatment adherence among persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 14555864
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Anxiolytic effects of acute morphine can be modulated by nitric oxide systems.

PMID 12837972
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Characteristics of third-party money management for persons with psychiatric disabilities.

PMID 12883142
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The five-site health and risk study of blood-borne infections among persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 12773596
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Detection of illicit substance use among persons with schizophrenia by radioimmunoassay of hair.

PMID 12773606
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Regular sources of medical care among persons with severe mental illness at risk of hepatitis C infection.

PMID 12773600
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Assessment of four stakeholder groups' preferences concerning outpatient commitment for persons with schizophrenia.

PMID 12777273
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Gender differences in hepatitis C infection and risks among persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 12773599
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Psychiatric Advance Directives: A Survey of Persons With Schizophrenia, Family Members, and Treatment Providers

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Effects of race and poverty on the process and outcome of inpatient rehabilitation services among stroke patients.

PMID 12624220
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Endorsement of personal benefit of outpatient commitment among persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 16700137
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Involuntary outpatient commitment and homelessness in persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 12602644
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Does involuntary outpatient commitment lead to more intensive treatment?

PMID 16700140
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Does fear of coercion keep people away from mental health treatment? Evidence from a survey of persons with schizophrenia and mental health professionals.

PMID 12898502
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Effects of involuntary outpatient commitment on subjective quality of life in persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 12898503
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Neighborhood structural characteristics and mental disorder: Faris and Dunham revisited.

PMID 12231022
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The social-environmental context of violent behavior in persons treated for severe mental illness.

PMID 12197987
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Mediation of employment discrimination disputes involving persons with psychiatric disabilities.

PMID 12161674
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Impact of outpatient commitment on victimization of people with severe mental illness.

PMID 12153835
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Coercion in mental Health care

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The perceived coerciveness of involuntary outpatient commitment: findings from an experimental study.

PMID 12108557
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Erratum: Victimization: A link between mental illness and violence? (International Journal of Law and Psychiatry (2001) 24 (559-572) PII: S0160252701000917)

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Victimization: a link between mental illness and violence?

PMID 11795220
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Recent victimization in women and men with severe mental illness: prevalence and correlates.

PMID 11776413
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Effects of involuntary outpatient commitment and depot antipsychotics on treatment adherence in persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 11580001
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Consumer, provider, and informal caregiver opinions on psychiatric advance directives.

PMID 11804010
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Effect of race and poverty on the process and outcome of inpatient rehabilitation among stroke patients.

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Can Involuntary Outpatient Commitment Reduce Arrests among Persons with Severe Mental Illness?

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Effectiveness of involuntary outpatient commitment.

PMID 11282712
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A randomized controlled trial of outpatient commitment in North Carolina.

PMID 11239099
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Unfunded Mandate: An Empirical Study of the Implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

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Reliability and validity of the SF-12 health survey among people with severe mental illness.

PMID 11078054
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Involuntary out-patient commitment and reduction of violent behaviour in persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 10827879
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Psychiatric advance directives: an alternative to coercive treatment?

PMID 10965546
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Race, role responsibility, and relationship: understanding the experience of caring for the severely mentally ill

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Can involuntary outpatient commitment reduce hospital recidivism?: Findings from a randomized trial with severely mentally ill individuals.

PMID 10588412
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Consumer perceptions of involuntary outpatient commitment.

PMID 10543860
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Violent behavior preceding hospitalization among persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 10333756
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Physicians' legal defensiveness and knowledge of medical law: comparing Denmark and the USA.

PMID 10847666
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Criminal victimization of persons with severe mental illness.

PMID 9890581
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Measuring coercion under involuntary outpatient commitment: Initial findings from a randomized controlled trial.

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Medication compliance [3] (multiple letters)

PMID 10211748
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Psychiatric impairment, social contact, and violent behavior: evidence from a study of outpatient-committed persons with severe mental disorder.

PMID 9857785
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Risk reconsidered: targets of violence in the social networks of people with serious psychiatric disorders.

PMID 9857786
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Taking the wrong drugs: the role of substance abuse and medication noncompliance in violence among severely mentally ill individuals.

PMID 9857783
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Male-female differences in the setting and construction of violence among people with severe mental illness.

PMID 9857782
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Administrative update: utilization of services. I. Comparing use of public and private mental health services: the enduring barriers of race and age.

PMID 9620158
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Violence and severe mental illness: the effects of substance abuse and nonadherence to medication.

PMID 9464202
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I. Comparing use of public and private mental health services: The enduring barriers of race and age

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Substance Abuse, Violent Behavior, and Police Encounters among Persons with Severe Mental Disorder

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Violence and severe mental disorder in clinical and community populations: the effects of psychotic symptoms, comorbidity, and lack of treatment.

PMID 9130311
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Interpreting the effectiveness of involuntary outpatient commitment: a conceptual model.

PMID 9148879
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Patient perceptions of coercion in mental hospital admission.

PMID 9178064
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The ethical challenges of a randomized controlled trial of involuntary outpatient commitment.

PMID 9033154
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The ethical challenges of a randomized controlled trial of involuntary outpatient commitment

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Medical futility decisions and physicians' legal defensiveness: the impact of anticipated conflict on thresholds for end-of-life treatment.

PMID 8745113
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Assessing and managing voilence risk in clinical practice

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Psychotic symptoms and disorders and the risk of violent behaviour in the community

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Psychotic symptoms and disorders and the risk of violent behaviour in the community

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North Carolina hospitals' policies on medical futility.

PMID 7477468
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New directions in research on involuntary outpatient commitment.

PMID 7788461
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Physicians' quantitative assessments of medical futility.

PMID 7919476
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Doing all they can: physicians who deny medical futility.

PMID 7767408
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Hispanic Americans and the state mental hospitals in Texas: ethnic parity as a latent function of a fiscal incentive policy.

PMID 8211310
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Demographic and diagnostic characteristics of inmates receiving mental health services in state adult correctional facilities: United States, 1988.

PMID 8412723
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Funding, expenditures, and staffing of mental health services in state adult correctional facilities: United States, 1988.

PMID 8412722
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Overview of mental health services provided by state adult correctional facilities: United States, 1988.

PMID 8332075
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Treatment decisions for terminally ill patients: physicians' legal defensiveness and knowledge of medical law.

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A binational school survey of depressive symptoms, drug use, and suicidal ideation.

PMID 1644730
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Treatment decisions for terminally ill patients: physicians' legal defensiveness and knowledge of medical law.

PMID 11651559
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Cultural context and substance abuse in Hispanic adolescents

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Violence and ECA data.

PMID 1743671
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Violence and psychiatric disorder in the community: evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys.

PMID 2142118
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Psychopathology and economic status in mother-only and mother-father families.

PMID 2766871
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Justice Disparities: Does the ADA Enforcement System Treat People with Psychiatric Disabilities Fairly?

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Can involuntary outpatient commitment reduce hospital recidivism?: findings from a randomized trial with severely mentally ill individuals

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Involuntary outpatient commitment and reduction of violent behavior in persons with severe mental illness

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The cost of Assisted Outpatient Commitment: Can it save states money?

PMID 23896998
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