Faculty

Nathan Kimbrel

Associate Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Medicine
School of Medicine

My primary areas of interest include the etiology, assessment, and treatment of PTSD, depression, suicide, and non-suicidal self-injury. I primarily work with veterans, firefighters, and emergency medical personnel due to their high levels of occupational exposure to traumatic stress. I also have long-standing interests in genetics, epigenetics, GxE research, personality, smoking, comorbidity, and statistical modeling procedures, such as CFA, SEM, and mixture modeling.


Education & Training

Ph.D. 2009

University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Grants

Cost Effectiveness of Combined Contingency Management and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Use Disorder

National Institutes of Health

Preventing Suicide through Implementation of Safety Planning Intervention Training

Impact of Reduced Cannabis Use on Functional Outcomes

National Institutes of Health

Project Access: Expanding Evidence-Based Treatment via Telehealth for Fire Service

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Publications

The genetic architecture of the human cerebral cortex.

PMID 32193296
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An epigenome-wide association study of posttraumatic stress disorder in US veterans implicates several new DNA methylation loci.

PMID 32171335
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Combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and head injuries differentially relate to alterations in cortical thickness in military Veterans.

PMID 31600766
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Psychosocial protective factors and suicidal ideation: Results from a national longitudinal study of veterans.

PMID 31561113
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Resilience facilitates adjustment through greater psychological flexibility among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans with and without mild traumatic brain injury.

PMID 31246043
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International meta-analysis of PTSD genome-wide association studies identifies sex- and ancestry-specific genetic risk loci.

PMID 31594949
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An examination of the interactive effects of different types of childhood abuse and perceived social support on suicidal ideation

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Cannabis Use Disorder and Post-Deployment Suicide Attempts in Iraq/Afghanistan-Era Veterans.

PMID 29952737
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Roles of Guilt Cognitions in Trauma-Related Sleep Disturbance in Military Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

PMID 29482385
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Development and Evaluation of the ADHD Cognitions Scale for Adults.

PMID 28528555
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Factor Structure and Initial Validation of a Brief Measure of Perceived Emotional and Physical Distress Tolerance in Post-9/11 US Veterans.

PMID 31660019
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Pain Intensity and Pain Interference in Male and Female Iraq/Afghanistan-era Veterans.

PMID 31253239
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An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies for Depression to Reduce Suicidal Ideation among Male and Female Veterans.

PMID 31253233
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Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Post-9/11 Veterans with Blast- and Non-Blast Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

PMID 30511882
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Association of Economic Status and Educational Attainment With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

PMID 31050786
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Behavioral health programs in fire service: Surveying access and preferences.

PMID 29369659
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Psychological inflexibility predicts PTSD symptom severity in war veterans after accounting for established PTSD risk factors and personality.

PMID 30148370
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Relationship between traumatic brain injury history and recent suicidal ideation in Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans.

PMID 30382745
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Longitudinal associations in the direction and prediction of PTSD symptoms and romantic relationship impairment over one year in post 9/11 veterans: A comparison of theories and exploration of potential gender differences.

PMID 30920234
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Posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain Injury: Sex differences in veterans.

PMID 30784779
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Cigarette smoking rates among veterans: Association with rurality and psychiatric disorders.

PMID 30388505
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Experiential avoidance as a mediator of the association between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and social support: A longitudinal analysis.

PMID 30525774
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Predictors of recovery from post-deployment posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in war veterans: The contributions of psychological flexibility, mindfulness, and self-compassion.

PMID 30658166
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Predictors of lower-than-expected posttraumatic symptom severity in war veterans: The influence of personality, self-reported trait resilience, and psychological flexibility.

PMID 30553859
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Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Borderline Personality Features as Risk Factors for Suicidal Ideation Among Male Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

PMID 30694575
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Shame as a mediator between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and suicidal ideation among veterans.

PMID 30248631
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The Effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms on Educational Functioning in Student Veterans

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Using the world health organization disability assessment schedule 2.0 to assess disability in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder

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Child maltreatment and suicidal ideation: The role of PTSD symptoms and alcohol misuse

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The association of resilience on psychiatric, substance use, and physical health outcomes in combat trauma-exposed military service members and veterans.

PMID 31263518
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Psychological Inflexibility Predicts of Suicidal Ideation Over Time in Veterans of the Conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.

PMID 28891193
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Behavioral and Health Outcomes Associated With Deployment and Nondeployment Acquisition of Traumatic Brain Injury in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans.

PMID 29859179
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Contingency Management Versus Psychotherapy for Prenatal Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

PMID 30061033
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A genome-wide association study of suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in U.S. military veterans.

PMID 30145303
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Wall/Object Punching: An Important but Under-Recognized Form of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.

PMID 28925016
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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Co-Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders in Veterans: Pilot Treatment Outcomes.

PMID 30338561
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Psychosocial Risk Factors and Other Than Honorable Military Discharge: Providing Healthcare to Previously Ineligible Veterans.

PMID 29547949
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A Cross-Lagged Panel Approach to Understanding Social Support and Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Veterans: Assessment Modality Matters.

PMID 30146145
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Examination of the indirect effects of combat exposure on suicidal behavior in veterans.

PMID 29677605
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The Association Between Military Sexual Trauma and Use of VA and Non-VA Health Care Services Among Female Veterans With Military Service in Iraq or Afghanistan.

PMID 26802046
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Chronic Pain, TBI, and PTSD in Military Veterans: A Link to Suicidal Ideation and Violent Impulses?

PMID 29526669
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The influence of mindfulness, self-compassion, psychological flexibility, and posttraumatic stress disorder on disability and quality of life over time in war veterans.

PMID 29488629
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Informing Federal Policy on Firearm Restrictions for Veterans with Fiduciaries: Risk Indicators in the Post-Deployment Mental Health Study.

PMID 29797151
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The Association Between Alcohol Consumption, Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorder, and Psychiatric Distress Among Male and Female Veterans.

PMID 30079875
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Traumatic stress and accelerated DNA methylation age: A meta-analysis.

PMID 29452766
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Gender differences in associations between DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and functional impairment in war veterans.

PMID 29723025
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Tobacco and alcohol use among firefighters during their first 3 years of service.

PMID 29771556
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The Impact of Cannabis Use Disorder on Suicidal and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Iraq/Afghanistan-Era Veterans with and without Mental Health Disorders.

PMID 28295524
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Risk factors for concurrent suicidal ideation and violent impulses in military veterans.

PMID 28627921
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Deployment characteristics and long-term PTSD symptoms.

PMID 28940473
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Mobile contingency management as an adjunctive treatment for co-morbid cannabis use disorder and cigarette smoking.

PMID 29268146
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Largest GWAS of PTSD (N=20 070) yields genetic overlap with schizophrenia and sex differences in heritability.

PMID 28439101
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Association of posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury with aggressive driving in Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans.

PMID 29553791
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Exploring resilience models in a sample of combat-exposed military service members and veterans: a comparison and commentary

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Brain Structural Covariance Network Topology in Remitted Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

PMID 29651256
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Does Deployment-Related Military Sexual Assault Interact with Combat Exposure to Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Female Veterans?

PMID 30202245
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Mechanisms of Moral Injury Following Military Sexual Trauma and Combat in Post-9/11 U.S. War Veterans.

PMID 30450058
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Genomewide association studies of suicide attempts in US soldiers.

PMID 28902444
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A putative causal relationship between genetically determined female body shape and posttraumatic stress disorder.

PMID 29178946
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Factors of impulsivity and cluster B personality dimensions

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Sleep quality in returning veterans: The influence of mild traumatic brain injury.

PMID 28703617
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Self-Reported Pain in Male and Female Iraq/Afghanistan-Era Veterans: Associations with Psychiatric Symptoms and Functioning.

PMID 28122941
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Resilience and Traumatic Brain Injury Among Iraq/Afghanistan War Veterans: Differential Patterns of Adjustment and Quality of Life.

PMID 27922725
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Epigenome-wide association of PTSD from heterogeneous cohorts with a common multi-site analysis pipeline.

PMID 28691784
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Letter to the Editor: Posttraumatic stress disorder has genetic overlap with cardiometabolic traits.

PMID 28374664
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Traumatic Brain Injury, Sleep Quality, and Suicidal Ideation in Iraq/Afghanistan Era Veterans.

PMID 28590264
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The Role of Emotion-Driven Impulse Control Difficulties in the Relation Between Social Anxiety and Aggression.

PMID 27479300
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Cannabis use disorder and suicide attempts in Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans.

PMID 28129565
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ADHD and nonsuicidal self-injury in male veterans with and without PTSD.

PMID 28279896
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Trauma and Autonomic Dysregulation: Episodic-Versus Systemic-Negative Affect Underlying Cardiovascular Risk in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

PMID 28570433
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Theory-driven models of self-directed violence among individuals with PTSD.

PMID 28813309
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Nonsuicidal self-injury in men: a serious problem that has been overlooked for too long.

PMID 28127935
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5-HTTLPR and DISC1 risk genotypes for elevated PTSD symptoms in US military veterans.

PMID 28127926
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Further evidence for a role of the ADRB2 gene in risk for posttraumatic stress disorder.

PMID 27701011
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Nonsuicidal self-injury and interpersonal violence in U.S. veterans seeking help for posttraumatic stress disorder.

PMID 27930966
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Differences in psychiatric symptoms and barriers to mental health care between volunteer and career firefighters.

PMID 27930964
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The Association Between Toxic Exposures and Chronic Multisymptom Illness in Veterans of the Wars of Iraq and Afghanistan.

PMID 28045798
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Sociocultural discourse in science: Flawed assumptions and bias in the CLASH model.

PMID 29342553
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Trauma and Autonomic Dysregulation: Episodic - Versus Systemic - Negative Affect Underlying Cardiovascular Risk in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

PMID 27941578
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Is Cumulative Exposure to Suicide Attempts and Deaths a Risk Factor for Suicidal Behavior Among Firefighters? A Preliminary Study.

PMID 27371810
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Does body mass index moderate the association between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and suicidal ideation in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans?

PMID 27479102
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A 12-Month prospective study of the effects of PTSD-depression comorbidity on suicidal behavior in Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans.

PMID 27376669
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Nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.

PMID 27419652
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The structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in war veterans.

PMID 26275127
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Supplemental nicotine preloading for smoking cessation in posttraumatic stress disorder: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

PMID 27046670
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Reinforcement Sensitivity and Social Anxiety in Combat Veterans.

PMID 28966424
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Neuropsychological functioning, coping, and quality of life among returning war veterans.

PMID 26891248
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The prevalence of binge drinking and receipt of provider drinking advice among US veterans with military service in Iraq or Afghanistan.

PMID 26154366
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Project reach out: A Training Program to Increase Behavioral Health Utilization among Professional Firefighters

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In the wake of suicide: Developing guidelines for suicide postvention in fire service.

PMID 26332212
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Predicting Suicide Risk in Trauma Exposed Veterans: The Role of Health Promoting Behaviors.

PMID 28002490
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Functional correlates of military sexual assault in male veterans.

PMID 26524280
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Chronic pain acceptance incrementally predicts disability in polytrauma-exposed veterans at baseline and 1-year follow-up.

PMID 26233854
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Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Functional Disability in U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans.

PMID 26426991
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Does military sexual trauma moderate the impact of critical warzone experiences?

PMID 26210649
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Genome-wide association study of posttraumatic stress disorder in a cohort of Iraq-Afghanistan era veterans.

PMID 26114229
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Effect of genetic variation in the nicotinic receptor genes on risk for posttraumatic stress disorder.

PMID 26184988
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Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and predictive validity for a Likert-based version of the Sources of occupational stress-14 (SOOS-14) scale.

PMID 26073282
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Resilience, traumatic brain injury, depression, and posttraumatic stress among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.

PMID 26214528
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Non-suicidal self-injury as a predictor of active and passive suicidal ideation among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans.

PMID 25858799
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EFFECT OF THE APOE ε4 ALLELE AND COMBAT EXPOSURE ON PTSD AMONG IRAQ/AFGHANISTAN-ERA VETERANS.

PMID 25709077
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Do child abuse and maternal care interact to predict military sexual trauma?

PMID 25534500
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Self-Compassion as a prospective predictor of PTSD symptom severity among trauma-exposed U.S. Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans.

PMID 25808565
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An examination of the broader effects of warzone experiences on returning Iraq/Afghanistan veterans' psychiatric health.

PMID 25541538
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Social support, stress, and suicidal ideation in professional firefighters.

PMID 25564831
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Latent Factor Structure of DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

PMID 26366290
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Careful operationalization and assessment are critical for advancing the study of the neurobiology of resilience.

PMID 26786545
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Effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and quality of life among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

PMID 25314020
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An examination of the association between 5-HTTLPR, combat exposure, and PTSD diagnosis among U.S. veterans.

PMID 25793742
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A clinician's perspective on memory reconsolidation as the primary basis for psychotherapeutic change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

PMID 26050699
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The critical warzone experiences (CWE) scale: initial psychometric properties and association with PTSD, anxiety, and depression.

PMID 25238984
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The factor structure of psychiatric comorbidity among Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans and its relationship to violence, incarceration, suicide attempts, and suicidality.

PMID 25169889
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DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder: factor structure and rates of diagnosis.

PMID 25213835
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Effect of the APOE epsilon 4 allele and combat exposure on PTSD and psychiatric comorbidity

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A Bayesian model averaging approach to examining changes in quality of life among returning Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

PMID 24942672
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Deliberate self-harm and suicidal ideation among male Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans seeking treatment for PTSD.

PMID 25066891
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Using the WHODAS 2.0 to assess functional disability associated with DSM-5 mental disorders.

PMID 25082488
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A test of whether coping styles moderate the effect of PTSD symptoms on alcohol outcomes.

PMID 25158641
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PATTERNS AND PREDICTORS OF HEAVY DRINKING DURING THE FIRST THREE YEARS OF FIRE SERVICE

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Combined PTSD and depressive symptoms interact with post-deployment social support to predict suicidal ideation in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

PMID 24612971
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The effect of social anxiety on urge and craving among smokers with and without anxiety disorders.

PMID 24331637
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Acceptance and action questionnaire - II scores as a predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among war veterans

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Are negative automatic thoughts associated with adhd in adulthood?

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The Invalidating Childhood Environment Scale (ICES): psychometric properties and relationship to borderline personality symptomatology.

PMID 22984861
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Reinforcement sensitivity theory predicts positive and negative affect in daily life

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AVOIDANT COPING MEDIATES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS AND NEGATIVE ALCOHOL-RELATED CONSEQUENCES

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BIS and BAS interact with perceived parental affectionless control to predict personality disorder symptomatology.

PMID 22486450
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Neuropsychological sequelae of PTSD and TBI following war deployment among OEF/OIF veterans.

PMID 22350690
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BIS, BAS, and bias: The role of personality and cognitive bias in social anxiety

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An evaluation of behavioral approach in adults with ADHD

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A revised measure of occupational stress for firefighters: Psychometric properties and relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance abuse

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Deployment-related TBI, persistent postconcussive symptoms, PTSD, and depression in OEF/OIF veterans.

PMID 22121940
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Restrictive Emotionality, BIS, BAS, and Psychological Help-Seeking Behavior

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Mental Health Treatment Involvement and Religious Coping among African American, Hispanic, and White Veterans of the Wars of Iraq and Afghanistan.

PMID 21785719
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Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and emotion regulation difficulties: A multimodal investigation

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The effect of behavioral inhibition and approach on normal social functioning

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ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PATTERNS OF DRINKING AND SYMPTOMS OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN MILITARY VETERANS

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DRINKING TO COPE IN RETURNING WAR VETERANS

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THE EFFECTS OF CHILDHOOD TRAUMA EXPOSURE ON POST-DEPLOYMENT PATTERNS OF DRINKING IN COMBAT VETERANS

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PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF TWO ABBREVIATED VERSIONS OF THE SOURCES OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS (SOOS) SCALE: THE SOOS-33 AND THE SOOS-14

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An examination of the relationship between behavioral approach system (BAS) sensitivity and social interaction anxiety.

PMID 20197227
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A Dimensional Analysis of Creativity and Mental Illness: Do Anxiety and Depression Symptoms Predict Creative Cognition, Creative Accomplishments, and Creative Self-Concepts?

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Assessment and treatment of personality disorders: A behavioral perspective.

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A model of the development and maintenance of generalized social phobia.

PMID 17959288
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Sensitivity to punishment and low maternal care account for the link between bulimic and social anxiety symptomology.

PMID 18329600
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High BAS, but not low BIS, predicts externalizing symptoms in adults

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Examination of the reliability and factor structure of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a non-clinical sample

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An analysis of reinforcement sensitivity theory and the five-factor model

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The interaction of reinforcement sensitivity and life events in the prediction of anhedonic depression and mixed anxiety-depression symptoms

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Reinforcement sensitivity and maternal style as predictors of psychopathology

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The development and maintenance of personality disorders: A behavioral perspective.

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Assessment and treatment of personality disorders: A behavioral perspective.

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The development and maintenance of personality disorders: A behavioral perspective.

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