David Joseph Madden, PhD


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Professor of Medical Psychology in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience
Chair of the Scientific Review Committee in the Center for Brain Imaging and Analysis
Department / Division:
Psychiatry / Geriatric Behavioral Health
40 Duke Medicine Circle
Room 414
Durham, NC 27710
Office Telephone:
(919) 681-9345
  • PhD, University of California at Davis, 1977
Research Interests:
My research focuses primarily on the cognitive neuroscience of aging: the investigation of age-related changes in perception, attention, and memory, using both behavioral measures and neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).

The behavioral measures have focused on reaction time, with the goal of distinguishing age-related changes in specific cognitive abilities from more general effects arising from a slowing in elementary perceptual processes. The cognitive abilities of interest include selective attention as measured in visual search tasks, semantic and episodic memory retrieval, and executive control processes.

The behavioral measures are necessary to define the cognitive abilities of interest, and the neuroimaging techniques help define the functional neuroanatomy of those abilities. The PET and fMRI measures provide information regarding neural activity during cognitive performance. DTI is a recently developed technique that images the structural integrity of white matter. The white matter tracts of the brain provide critical pathways linking the gray matter regions, and thus this work will complement the studies using PET and fMRI that focus on gray matter activation.

A current focus of the research program is the functional connectivity among regions, not only during cognitive task performance but also during rest. These latter measures, referred to as intrinsic functional connectivity, are beginning to show promise as an index of overall brain functional efficiency, which can be assessed without the implementation of a specific cognitive task. From DTI, information can be obtained regarding how anatomical connectivity constrains intrinsic functional connectivity. It will be important to determine the relative influence of white matter pathway integrity, intrinsic functional connectivity, and task-related functional connectivity, as mediators of age-related differences in behavioral measures of cognitive performance.

Ultimately, the research program can help link age-related changes in cognitive performance to changes in the structure and function of specific neural systems. The results also have implications for clinical translation, in terms of the identification of neural biomarkers for the diagnosis of neural pathology and targeting rehabilitation procedures.
Representative Publications:
  • Davis, SW; Kragel, JE; Madden, DJ; Cabeza, R. The architecture of cross-hemispheric communication in the aging brain: linking behavior to functional and structural connectivity. Cerebral Cortex. 2012;22:232-242.  Abstract
  • Madden, DJ; Bennett, IJ; Burzynska, A; Potter, GG; Chen, NK; Song, AW. Diffusion tensor imaging of cerebral white matter integrity in cognitive aging. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: international journal of biochemistry and biophysics. 2012;1822:386-400.  Abstract
  • Bennett, IJ; Madden, DJ; Vaidya, CJ; Howard, JH; Howard, DV. White matter integrity correlates of implicit sequence learning in healthy aging. Neurobiology of Aging. 2011;32:2317.e1-2317.12.  Abstract
  • Biswal, BB; Mennes, M; Zuo, XN; Gohel, S; Kelly, C; Smith, SM; Beckmann, CF; Adelstein, JS; Buckner, RL; Colcombe, S; Dogonowski, AM; Ernst, M; Fair, D; Hampson, M; Hoptman, MJ; Hyde, JS; Kiviniemi, VJ; K├Âtter, R; Li, SJ; Lin, CP; Lowe, MJ; Mackay, C; Madden, DJ; Madsen, KH; Margulies, DS; Mayberg, HS; McMahon, K; Monk, CS; Mostofsky, SH; Nagel, BJ; Pekar, JJ; Peltier, SJ; Petersen, SE; Riedl, V; Rombouts, SA; Rypma, B; Schlaggar, BL; Schmidt, S; Seidler, RD; Siegle, GJ; Sorg, C; Teng, GJ et al.. Toward discovery science of human brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 2010;107:4734-4739.  Abstract
  • Madden, DJ; Costello, MC; Dennis, NA; Davis, SW; Shepler, AM; Spaniol, J; Bucur, B; Cabeza, R. Adult age differences in functional connectivity during executive control. NeuroImage. 2010;52:643-657.  Abstract
  • Chen, NK; Chou, YH; Song, AW; Madden, DJ. Measurement of spontaneous signal fluctuations in fMRI: adult age differences in intrinsic functional connectivity. Brain Structure and Function. 2009;213:571-585.  Abstract
  • Madden, DJ; Bennett, IJ; Song, AW. Cerebral white matter integrity and cognitive aging: contributions from diffusion tensor imaging. Neuropsychology Review. 2009;19:415-435.  Abstract
  • Madden, DJ; Spaniol, J; Costello, MC; Bucur, B; White, LE; Cabeza, R; Davis, SW; Dennis, NA; Provenzale, JM; Huettel, SA. Cerebral white matter integrity mediates adult age differences in cognitive performance. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 2009;21:289-302.  Abstract
  • Madden, DJ; Spaniol, J; Bucur, B; Whiting, WL. Age-related increase in top-down activation of visual features. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2007;60:644-651.  Abstract
  • Madden, DJ; Spaniol, J; Whiting, WL; Bucur, B; Provenzale, JM; Cabeza, R; White, LE; Huettel, SA. Adult age differences in the functional neuroanatomy of visual attention: a combined fMRI and DTI study. Neurobiology of Aging. 2007;28:459-476.  Abstract
  • Spaniol, J; Madden, DJ; Voss, A. A diffusion model analysis of adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 2006;32:101-117.  Abstract
  • Madden, DJ; Whiting, WL; Huettel, SA; White, LE; MacFall, JR; Provenzale, JM. Diffusion tensor imaging of adult age differences in cerebral white matter: relation to response time. NeuroImage. 2004;21:1174-1181.  Abstract